Health Surveillance and Epidemiology

Key Stats at a Glance

Comparing Toronto's Health

The chart below presents recent estimates for selected health status indicators. The “T” symbol shows how Toronto is doing compared to the rest of Ontario and to the most and least favourable results for health units in Ontario.

The estimates for Toronto’s health indicators vary across the city with poorer health often associated with lower income and other social determinants of health including race, immigration status and sexual orientation.

Overall, Toronto compares favourably or is on par with the rest of Ontario. Rates for physical activity, diabetes prevalence, and low birth weight infants are exceptions.

 

Population (2015): 2,839,180      Births (2013): 31,291     Deaths (2010):16,606

Indicator Definitions, Data Sources and Notes

Toronto Population:  for 2015 is a projection calculated using the cohort-component method by the Ministry of Finance using a base population, birth, death and migration information. 

Data was obtained from Ministry of Finance Population Projections by PHU from C2013-2041, based on the 2011 Census, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2016.

Births:  is the total number of babies delivered by women who resided in Toronto in 2013, excluding stillbirths.

Data was obtained from the Better Outcomes Registry and Network (BORN) Information System for 2013.  Date of extraction: February 2016.

Deaths:  is the number of deaths for both Toronto male and female residents of all ages in 2010.

Data was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2016.

Life Expectancy:  is the hypothetical average number of years that an individual would live if subjected to the mortality experience for the specified population in 2010. Life expectancy was calculated using a period life table template provided by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists of Ontario (APHEO), located at http://www.apheo.ca/index.php?pid=223. APHEO's life expectancy template calculates life expectancy by taking into consideration the current age-specific mortality rate for each population.

Data for the number of deaths for 2010 was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: April 2015. The 2010 population estimates are based on Statistics Canada 2011 data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: April 2015.

Teen Pregnancy Rate:  is the number of hospital deliveries (live and still births) and therapeutic abortions in 2013 for females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females in this age range.

Data for births was obtained from Inpatient Discharges, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario.  Data for therapeutic abortions was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Population data for 2013 was obtained from the Ministry of Finance Population Projections by PHU from C2013-2041, based on the 2011 Census, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario.  Date of extraction: July 2015.

Low Birth Weight:  is defined as the percentage of infants born in 2014 that weigh less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces at birth among singleton babies. Births weighing less than one (1) gram were excluded.

Data was obtained from Inpatient Discharges, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2016.

Large for Gestational Age:  is defined as the percentage of infants that weighed in the 90th percentile or higher for all live births in 2013. Infants delivered either at a hospital or at home were included.

Data was obtained from the Better Outcomes Registry and Network (BORN) Information System, March 2015.

Smokers:  is defined as the percentage of adults age 20 and over who have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, and currently smoke daily or occasionally.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2013/14 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Exceeds Low Risk Drinking Guidelines:  refers to the percentage of adults age 19 and over who drink in excess of guidelines developed by the National Alcohol Strategy Advisory Committee. The guidelines state that for women, no more than 10 drinks be consumed per week, with no more than two drinks most days, and no more than 3 drinks on special occasions. For men, it is recommended that no more than 15 drinks be consumed per week, with no more than 3 drinks most days, and no more than 4 drinks on special occasions. It is also recommended that both men and women have at least two alcohol-free days per week.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2013/14 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Physical Activity During Leisure:  is the percentage of adults aged 20 or higher who engage in moderate or vigorous physical activity while not at work, and is based on estimates of the total amount of energy used in leisure time per day. This is determined by asking survey respondents how often and how long on average per session they participated in a list of 21 popular physical activities over the past three months. Each activity is assigned an intensity level. The frequency of participation in each activity is multiplied by the average duration and the intensity level, and each activity is then summed to achieve a measure of total daily leisure time energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is categorized into inactive, moderately active, and active categories. These estimates assume that all activities are performed at a standard intensity level, which in many cases is not true. This estimate also does not capture physical activity at work, housework or active transportation.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2013/14 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Overweight or Obese:  is the percentage of adults age 20 and over with a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 25.0. BMI is calculated by dividing an individual’s weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. A BMI under 18.5 is considered underweight, 18.5 to 24.9, a healthy weight, 25.0 to 29.9, overweight, and 30.0 and greater, obese. Pregnant women and individuals reporting height under 0.91m or over 2.11m height were excluded. BMI can misclassify adults who are naturally very lean or who have very high muscle mass.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2013/14 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Cancer Incidence:

    1. Colorectal Cancer Incidence:  is the number of adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the intestinal tract, colon, appendix, or rectum by a medical professional in 2012.  Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions. 
    2. Lung Cancer Incidence:  is the number of adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the bronchus or lung by a medical professional in 2012.  Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions. 
    3. Breast Cancer Incidence:  is the number of female adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the breast by a medical professional in 2012.  Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions. 

Methods for reporting cancer incidence have changed.  Historically, people diagnosed with more than one primary cancer in a year only had one of those cancers reported in the database.  With the 2015 data release all primary cancers are reported.  This resulted in an increase in some rates compared to previous reports and does not necessarily reflect an increase in actual incidence.

Cancer data was obtained from Cancer Care Ontario (Ontario Cancer Registry), CCO SEER*Stat Package Release 10 - OCR, released Aug 2015.  Population data was obtained from the Population Estimates, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care accessed through IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO; data extraction: May 2015.

Diabetes Prevalence:  is an estimate of the percentage of adults age 20 years and over with either Type 1 or 2 diabetes in 2013. The estimate is based on an algorithm which identifies a person as having diabetes if they had at least one hospitalization or two claims for physician services for diabetes within a two year period. The denominator is all individuals with a valid Ontario Health Insurance Program card excluding those who had no contact with the healthcare system in the five years prior to 2013.  Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions.

The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences produced the estimate using data from the Ontario Diabetes Database and the Registered Persons Database, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, August 2015.

 

Toronto Health Indicators - A Comparative Look

This chart shows the most recent estimates for selected heath indicators, and compares Toronto residents to the rest of the Ontario population (excluding Toronto). This chart also compares Toronto to the most and least favourable results found in other health units in Ontario.

Additional data details, notes and sources are located below.

Population: 2,791,140 (2012)   Births: 30,528 (2011)   Deaths: 16,606 (2010) Toronto Population Health Indicators

Data Details, Notes and Sources:

Toronto Population: The estimate of 2,791,140 (2012) is based on Statistics Canada's 2011 Census, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2015.

Births: The estimate of 30,528 (2011) is defined by births by women who resided in Toronto in 2011. The number excludes still births.

Data was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Live Birth Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2015.

Deaths:  The number of deaths at 16,606 (2010) is the number of deaths for both Toronto male and female residents of all ages in 2010. 

Data was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2015.

Life Expectancy: Life Expectancy for females in 2010 was 80.1 years in the health unit with the least favourable result, 83.7 years in Ontario excluding Toronto, 85.4 years in Toronto and 86.1 years in the health unit with the most favourable result.

Life Expectancy for males in 2010 was 75.5 years in the health unit with the least favourable result, 79.5 years in Ontario excluding Toronto, 80.7 years in Toronto and 82.8 years in the health unit with the most favourable result.

Life expectancy is the hypothetical average number of years that an individual would live if subjected to the mortality experience for the specified population in 2010. Life expectancy was calculated using a period life table template provided by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists of Ontario (APHEO). APHEO's life expectancy template calculates life expectancy by taking into consideration the current age-specific mortality rate for each population.

Data for the number of deaths, and population estimates for 2010 were obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, and Statistics Canada, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: April 2015.

Teen Pregnancy Rate: The Teen Pregnancy rate per 1,000 females aged 15-19 in 2012 was 49.8 in the health unit with the least favourable result, 23.3 in Toronto, 22.4 in Ontario excluding Toronto and 10.1 in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The teen pregnancy rate is the number of hospital deliveries (live and still births) and therapeutic abortions in 2012 by females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females in this age range.

Data for births was obtained from Inpatient Discharges, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Data for therapeutic abortions was obtained from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information (CIHI), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTh Ontario. Population estimates for 2012 were obtained from Statistics Canada accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: February 2015.

Low Birth Weight: The Low Birth Weight rate in 2013 was 6.4% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 5.4% in Toronto, 4.8% in Ontario excluding Toronto and 3.0% in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimate is defined as the percentage of infants born in 2013 that weigh less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces at birth among singleton babies. Births weighing less than one (1) gram were excluded.

Data was obtained from Inpatient Discharges, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH Ontario. Date of extraction: March 2015.

Large for Gestational Age: The Large for Gestation Age rate in 2013 was 16.8% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 10.9% in Ontario excluding Toronto, 7.5% in Toronto and 7.4% in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimate is defined as the percentage of infants that weighed in the 90th percentile or higher for all live births in 2013. Infants delivered either at a hospital or at home were included.

Data was obtained from the Better Outcomes Registry Network (BORN) Information System, March 2015.

Smokers - Adults: The percent of adult Smokers in 2011/12 was 30.0% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 21.2% in Ontario excluding Toronto and 17.1% in Toronto which was also the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates are defined as the percentage of adults age 20 and over who have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, and currently smoke daily or occasionally.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2011/12 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Exceeds Low Risk Drinking Guidelines: The percent of adults exceeding the Low Risk Drinking Guidelines in 2011/12 was 41.1% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 29.9% in Ontario excluding Toronto, 24.9% in Toronto and 20.7% in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates refer to the percentage of adults age 19 and over who drink in excess of guidelines developed by the National Alcohol Strategy Advisory Committee. The guidelines state that for women, no more than 10 drinks be consumed per week, with no more than two drinks most days, and no more than 3 drinks on special occasions. For men, it is recommended that no more than 15 drinks be consumed per week, with no more than 3 drinks most days, and no more than 4 drinks on special occasions. It is also recommended that both men and women have at least two alcohol-free days per week.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2011/12 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Physical Activity During Leisure - Adults:  The percent of adults who reported being Physically Active During Leisure Time in 2011/12 was 39.3% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 47.1% in Toronto, 52.9% in Ontario excluding Toronto and 62.2% in the health unit with most favourable result.

These percentages are based on adults aged 20 or higher who engage in moderate or vigorous physical activity while not at work, and is based on estimates of the total amount of energy used in leisure time per day. This is determined by asking survey respondents how often and how long on average per session they participated in a list of 21 popular physical activities over the past three months. Each activity is assigned an intensity level. The frequency of participation in each activity is multiplied by the average duration and the intensity level, and each activity is then summed to achieve a measure of total daily leisure time energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is categorized into inactive, moderately active, and active categories. These estimates assume that all activities are performed at a standard intensity level, which in many cases is not true. This estimate also does not capture physical activity at work, housework, or active transportation.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2011/12 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Overweight or Obese – Adults: The percent of adults who were Overweight or Obese in 2011/12 was 64.9% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 55.5% in Ontario excluding Toronto, 45.8% in Toronto and 45.5% in the health unit with the most favourable result.

These percentages are based on the number of adults age 20 and over with a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 25.0. BMI is calculated by dividing an individual’s weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. A BMI under 18.5 is considered underweight, 18.5 to 24.9, a healthy weight, 25.0 to 29.9, overweight, and 30.0 and greater, obese. Pregnant women and individuals reporting height under 0.91m or over 2.11m height were excluded. BMI can misclassify adults who are naturally very lean or who have very high muscle mass.

Data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2011/12 Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Colorectal Cancer Incidence: The Colorectal Cancer Incidence rate per 100,000 people, age standardized in 2009 was 77.2 in the health unit with the least favourable result, 48.9 in Ontario excluding Toronto, 40.8 in Toronto and 39.0 in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates are based on the number of adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the intestinal tract, colon, appendix, or rectum by a medical professional in 2009. Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions.

Data was obtained from Cancer Care Ontario (Ontario Cancer Registry), Seer*Stat Release 9 - OCRIS May 2012, released October 2012.

Lung Cancer Incidence: The Lung Cancer Incidence rate per 100,000 people, age standardized in 2009 was 79.6 in the health unit with the least favourable result, 52.7 in Ontario excluding Toronto, 39.2 in Toronto and 35.9 in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates are based on the number of adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the bronchus or lung by a medical professional in 2009. Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions.

Data was obtained from Cancer Care Ontario (Ontario Cancer Registry), Seer*Stat Release 9 - OCRIS May 2012, released October 2012.

Breast Cancer Incidence: The Breast Cancer Incidence rate per 100,000 women, age standardized in 2009 was 122.9 in the health unit with the least favourable result, 99.4 in Ontario excluding Toronto, 99.1 in Toronto and 73.0 in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates are based on the number of female adults per 100,000 who were diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the breast by a medical professional in 2009. Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions.

Data was obtained from Cancer Care Ontario (Ontario Cancer Registry), Seer*Stat Release 9 - OCRIS May 2012, released October 2012.

Diabetes Prevalence: Diabetes Prevalence among adults in 2012 was 11.4% in the health unit with the least favourable result, 10.4% in Toronto, 9.6% in Ontario excluding Toronto and 7.9% in the health unit with the most favourable result.

The estimates are based on the percentage of adults age 20 years and over with either Type 1 or 2 diabetes in 2012. The estimate is based on an algorithm which identifies a person as having diabetes if they had at least one hospitalization or two claims for physician services for diabetes within a two year period. The denominator is all individuals with a valid Ontario Health Insurance Program card excluding those who had no contact with the healthcare system in the five years prior to 2012. Data was age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population to allow for comparisons of estimates over time, and between geographies with different age-distributions.

The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences produced the estimate using data from the Ontario Diabetes Database and the Registered Persons Database, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, March 2015.

Age Standardized Mortality Rates for Leading Causes: The leading causes of death for males per 100,000 were 83.5 for Ischaemic Heart Disease, 41.1 for Cancer of Lung and Bronchus, 27.2 for Cerebrovascular Diseases, 25.9 for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease, 19.0 for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, 18.9 for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases, 16.7 for Diabetes, 15.5 for Cancer of Lymph, Blood, Related Tissues, 14.0 for Cancer of Prostate, and 12.0 for Falls.

The leading causes of death for females per 100,000 were 39.5 for Ischaemic Heart Disease, 29.2 for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease, 22.0 for Cancer of Lung and Bronchus, 19.8 for Cerebrovascular Diseases, 16.9 for Cancer of Breast, 10.5 for Diabetes, 10.5 for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases,, 10.4 for Cancer of Lymph, Blood, Related Tissues, 10.3 for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, and 8.5 for Influenza and Pneumonia.

Data was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO. Date of extraction: September 2014.

* Age standardized rates (ASR) are age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population.

** Leading causes of death are based on a standard list developed by Becker, et al. (2006) for the World Health Organization (WHO) that was modified by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists of Ontario (APHEO) in 2008.

Number of Deaths for Leading Causes: The leading causes of death for males were 1331 for Ischaemic Heart Disease, 625 for Cancer of Lung and Bronchus, 440 for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease, 435 for Cerebrovascular Diseases, 305 for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases, 291 for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, 258 for Diabetes, 236 for Cancer of Lymph, Blood, Related Tissues, 225 for Cancer of Prostate and 198 Falls.

The leading causes of death for females were 1036 for Ischaemic Heart Disease, 909 for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease, 534 for Cerebrovascular Diseases, 445 for Cancer of Lung and Bronchus, 327 for Cancer of Breast, 256 for Diabetes, 256 for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases, 249 for Influenza and Pneumonia, 231 for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, 219 for Cancer of Lymph, Blood, Related Tissues and 219 for Diseases of Urinary System.

Data was obtained from Vital Statistics Ontario Mortality Data, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, accessed through IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO. Date of extraction: September 2014.

** Leading causes of death are based on a standard list developed by Becker, et al. (2006) for the World Health Organization (WHO) that was modified by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists of Ontario in 2008.

 

Selected Indicators, Toronto

Population: 2,615,000 (2011)          Births1: 30,500 (2011)         Deaths2: 16,566 (2009)

* For more information on the indicator, including trend and income inequality details, please follow the link provided from the indicator.

Health IndicatorEstimate/ValueData YearTrendIncome Inequality

Teen Pregnancy Rate3

25.4 pregnancies per 1,000 females, age 15 to 19 years

2011  

Low Birth Weight Babies 

(Singleton)4

 5.9% 2011

Infant Mortality5

6.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births 

2009

Children Vulnerable in Terms of Readiness to Learn (in senior kindergarten)6

29.9%
2010/2011

N/A6

 N/A

Youth Smoking

(grade 7 to 12)7

 9.9% 2013   N/A

Adult Smoking

(age 20 and older)8

 17.1% 2011/2012  

Daily Vegetable and Fruit Consumption
(5 or more times per day, age 20 and older)9

 36.4% 2011/2012  

Physically Active and Moderately Active
(age 20 and older)10

 47.1%  2011/2012  

Overweight / Obese

(age 20 and older)11

 45.8%  2011/2012  

Diabetes Prevalence

(age 20 and older)12

 8.5% 2011   N/A
Life Expectancy – Males13  78.7 years 2009  N/A N/A 

Health Adjusted Life Expectancy – Males14

 70.3 years 2009  N/A  N/A 
Life Expectancy – Females13  82.5 years  2009  N/A  N/A 

Health Adjusted Life Expectancy – Females14

70.3 years   2009  N/A  N/A  

 

Legend
Number of times the estimate or value is greater for the lowest income group compared to the highest income group    Downward trend  
Number of times the estimate or value is greater for the highest income group compared to the lowest income group Upward trend
No significant difference between income groups     No significant trend
N/A Not Applicable / Not Available

 

Age-Standardized Mortality Rate for Leading Causes15, Toronto, 2009

Number of Deaths for Leading Causes15, Toronto, 2009

 

 

Data Notes

1    Number of live births is the number of babies delivered in hospitals.

2   Deaths is the number deaths for both males and females of all ages.

3    Teen pregnancy rate is the number of hospital deliveries (live and still births) and therapeutic abortions by females aged 15 to 19 years per 1,000 females in this age range.

4    Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as weighing less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces at birth among singleton babies. Births weighing less than 1 gram are excluded.

5    Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among live-born infants up to 364 days of age per 1,000 live births.

6    Children vulnerable in terms of readiness to learn is the percent of kindergarten children who are considered vulnerable according to the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI evaluates readiness to learn among senior kindergarten students attending public and Catholic schools by looking at five domains: physical health and well-being, social knowledge and competence, emotional health and maturity, language and cognitive development, and communication skills and general knowledge. 'Vulnerable' children are in the bottom 10th percentile on one or more domains.  The rates are based on Ontario cut-off values.

The Methodology used to calculate this estimate has been modified from previous years; thus the estimate is not comparable to earlier published values.

7    Youth smoking is defined as any smoking during the 12 months before the survey among students in grades 7 to 12 in Ontario's public and Catholic regular school systems. This estimate includes daily and occasional smoking, but excludes those who just tried a cigarette.

8    Adult smoking includes current daily or occasional smoking.

9    Daily vegetable and fruit consumption does not take into consideration portion size.

10  Physical Activity is based on estimates of the total amount of energy used in leisure time per day. This is determined by asking survey respondents how often and how long on average per session they participated in a list of 21 popular physical activities over the past three months. Each activity is assigned an intensity level. The frequency of participation in each activity is multiplied by the average duration and the intensity level, and each activity is then summed to achieve a measure of total daily leisure time energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is categorized into inactive, moderately active, and active categories. These estimates assume that all activities are performed at a standard intensity level, which in many cases is not true. This estimate also does not capture physical activity done at work, as housework, and for transportation.

11  Overweight and Obesity are estimated using Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing an individual’s weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. A BMI of under 18.5 is considered underweight, 18.5 to 24.9 represents healthy weight, 25.0 to 29.9 is overweight, and 30.0 and greater is obese. Pregnant women and individuals reporting height under 0.91m or over 2.11m height are excluded. BMI can misclassify adults who are naturally very lean or who have very high muscle mass.

12  Diabetes prevalence is an age standardized rate for the Toronto population age 20 and over.  Individuals with at least one hospitalization or at least two claims for physicians' services (within two years) bearing a diagnosis of diabetes are included in the estimate.

13  Life Expectancy is the hypothetical length of time that an individual would live if subjected to the mortality experience for the specified population and time period. The period life table approach is used, which takes into consideration the current age-specific mortality rate for the population.

14  Health-Adjusted Life-Expectancyestimates the number of healthy years an individual is expected to live at birth (overall life expectancy minus the years of ill health, weighted by severity).  Ill health is measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HIU3), which provides a description of an individual’s overall functional health, based on eight attributes: vision, hearing, speech, ambulation (ability to get around), dexterity (use of hands and fingers), emotion (feelings), cognition (memory and thinking) and pain.

15  Leading Causes of Death are based on a standard list developed by Becker et al., (2006) for the World Health Organization (WHO), with modifications by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) in 2008. APHEO modifications and reference to the original methodology can be found at the APHEO site. Mortality data are age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population.

 

 

Data Sources

IndicatorData Source
Population Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Canada

Births

Low Birth Weight Babies

Inpatient Discharges 2011, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: January 2013

Deaths

Life Expectancy

Leading Causes of Death
Ontario Mortality Data, 2009, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: August 2012.
Teen Pregnancy Rate Inpatient Discharges and Hospital and Medical Services Data, 2002-2011; Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: December 2012 (Inpatient Discharges) and June 2013 (Hospital and Medical Services Data)
Infant Mortality Ontario Live Birth and Mortality Data 2009, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: May 2013
Children Vulnerable in Terms of Readiness to Learn Offord Centre for Child Studies, McMaster University, 2013 
Youth Smoking Boak, A., Hamilton, H.A., Adlaf, E.M., & Mann, R.E. (2013). Drug use among Ontario students, 1977-2013: Detailed OSDUHS findings (CAMH Research Document Series No. 36). Toronto, ON: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Adult Smoking

Daily Vegetable and Fruit Consumption, Five or More Times per Day

Physically Active and Moderately Active

Overweight / Obese
Canadian Community Health Survey, 2011/12, Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care
Diabetes Prevalence

Ontario Diabetes Database (at ICES), 2011; Registered Persons Database, 2011, from Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care

Health Adjusted Life Expectancy

Mortality: Vital Statistics, 2009, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: August 2012.

Health-Related Quality of Life: Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2008, Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care

Denominator Data (population) Population Estimates, Toronto: IntelliHealth Ontario, Date Extracted: October, 2012