Selected Health Indicators, Toronto
|Indicator||Estimate / Value||Data Year|
|Infant Mortality 2||6.4 infant deaths
per 1,000 live births
|Low Birth Weight Babies 3||5.9%||2011|
|Children Vulnerable in Terms of Readiness to Learn 4 (in senior kindergarten)||26.9%||2007/08 School Year|
|Flu Shot in the Past Year (ages 12 and older)||25.9%||2010|
|Youth Smoking 5 (grades 7 to 12)||8.9%||2011|
|Adult Smoking 6 (ages 20 and older)||17.2%||2011|
|Exceeding Low Risk Drinking Guidelines 7 (ages 19 and older)||23.1%||2010|
|Daily Vegetable and Fruit Consumption 8 (5 or more times per day, ages 20 and older)||39.4%||2010|
|Physically Active and Moderately Active 9 (ages 20 and older)||41.5%||2010|
|Overweight / Obese 10 (ages 20 and older)||46.1%||2010|
|Diabetes Prevalence 11 (ages 20 and older)||9.9%||2011|
|Sexually Transmitted Infections 12||547.5 cases per 100,000||2011|
|Life Expectancy 13 – Males||78.7 years||2009|
|Life Expectancy - Females||82.5 years||2009|
Ten Leading Causes of Death, by Sex, Toronto, 2009
|Cause of Death 14||Number||Percent of Total|
|Total, all causes of death||8,118||100.0%|
|Ischemic heart disease||1,048||12.9%|
|Dementia and Alzheimer's disease||733||9.0%|
|Cancer of lung and bronchus||442||5.4%|
|Cancer of breast||345||4.2%|
|Chronic lower respiratory diseases||277||3.4%|
|Influenza and pneumonia||254||3.1%|
|Cancer of colon, rectum and anus||253||3.1%|
|Cancer of lymph, blood and related||225||2.8%|
|Total, all causes of death||8,448||100.0%|
|Ischemic heart disease||1,346||15.9%|
|Cancer of lung and bronchus||571||6.8%|
|Dementia and Alzheimer's disease||421||5.0%|
|Cancer of colon, rectum and anus||329||3.9%|
|Cancer of lymph, blood and related||277||3.3%|
|Cancer of prostate||272||3.2%|
|Chronic lower respiratory diseases||270||3.2%|
|Influenza and pneumonia||238||2.8%|
A full set of health indicators for Toronto is available at the Surveillance Indicators page.
|Population||Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Canada|
Inpatient Discharges 2011, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: January 2013
|Low Birth Weight Babies|
|Infant Mortality||Ontario Live Birth and Mortality Data 2009, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: May 2013|
|Vulnerable in Terms of Readiness to Learn||Offord Centre for Child Studies, McMaster University, 2009|
|Flu Shot in the Past Year||
Canadian Community Health Survey, 2010 and 2011, Statistics Canada, Share File, Knowledge Management and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care
|Exceeding the Low Risk Drinking Guidelines|
|Daily Vegetable and Fruit Consumption, Five or More Times per Day|
|Physically Active and Moderately Active|
|Overweight / Obese|
|Youth Smoking||Paglia-Boak, A., Adlaf, E.M., & Mann, R.E. (2011). Drug use among Ontario students, 1977-2011: Detailed OSDUHS findings (CAMH Research Document Series No. 32). Toronto, ON: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.|
|Diabetes Prevalence||Ontario Diabetes Database (at ICES), 2011; Registered Persons Database, 2011, from Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care|
|Sexually Transmitted Infections||Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Date Extracted: September, 2012|
Ontario Mortality Data, 2009, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: August 2012.
|Leading Causes of Death|
|Denominator Data (population)||Population Estimates, Toronto: Intellihealth, Date Extracted: October, 2012|
1 Number of live births is the number of babies delivered in hospitals.
2 Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among live-born infants up to 364 days of age per 1,000 live births.
3 Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as weighing less than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces at birth among singleton babies. Births weighing less than 1 gram are excluded.
4 Vulnerable in terms of readiness to learn is the percent of kindergarten children who are considered vulnerable according to the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI evaluates readiness to learn among senior kindergarten students attending public and Catholic schools by looking at 5 domains: physical health and well-being, social knowledge and competence, emotional health and maturity, language and cognitive development, and communication skills and general knowledge. 'Vulnerable' children are in the bottom 10th percentile on one or more domain.
5 Youth smoking is defined as any smoking during the 12 months before the survey among students in grades 7 to 12 in Ontario's public and Catholic regular school systems. This estimate includes daily and occasional smoking, but excludes those who just tried a cigarette.
6 Adult smoking includes current daily or occasional smoking.
7 The Low Risk Drinking Guidelines recommend that women have no more than ten drinks per week with no more than two drinks per day on most days; men have no more than 15 drinks per week with no more than three drinks on most days; people have at least two days per week with no alcohol consumption; and women have no more than three drinks on any one occasion men have no more than four drinks on any one occasion. For this estimate, a female survey respondent was considered to exceed the low risk drinking guidelines if she had more than ten drinks in the previous week, had more than two drinks on a single day in the previous week, consumed alcohol on six or seven days in the previous week, and/or had five or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month for the last 12 months. A male survey respondent was considered to exceed the low risk drinking guidelines if he had more than 15 drinks in the previous week, more than three drinks on a single day in the previous week, consumed alcohol on six or seven days in the previous week, and/or had five or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month for the last 12 months. This indicator excludes women who were pregnant or breastfeeding.
8 Daily vegetable and fruit consumption does not take into consideration portion size.
9 Physical Activity is based on estimates of the total amount of energy used in leisure time per day. This is determined by asking survey respondents how often and how long on average per session they participated in a list of 21 popular physical activities over the past three months. Each activity is assigned an intensity level. The frequency of participation in each activity is multiplied by the average duration and the intensity level, and each activity is then summed to achieve a measure of total daily leisure time energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is categorized into inactive, moderately active, and active categories. These estimates assume that all activities are performed at a standard intensity level, which in many cases is not true. This estimate also does not capture physical activity done at work, as housework, and for transportation.
10 Overweight and Obesity are estimated using Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing an individual’s weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. A BMI of under 18.5 is considered underweight, 18.5 to 24.9 represents healthy weight, 25.0 to 29.9 is overweight, and 30.0 and greater is obese. Pregnant women and individuals reporting height under 0.91m or over 2.11m height are excluded. BMI can misclassify adults who are naturally very lean or who have very high muscle mass.
11 Diabetes prevalence is a crude point prevalence for the Toronto population age 20+ on April 1st, 2011. Individuals with at least one hospitalization or at least two claims for physicians' services (within two years) bearing a diagnosis of diabetes are included in the estimate.
12 Sexually transmitted infections is a measure of incidence, age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population.
13 Life Expectancy is the hypothetical length of time that an individual would live if subjected to the mortality experience for the specified population and time period. The period life table approach is used, which takes into consideration the current age-specific mortality rate for the population.
14 Leading Causes of Death are based on a standard list developed by Becker et al., (2006) for the World Health Organization (WHO), with modifications by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) in 2008. APHEO modifications and reference to the original methodology can be found at the APHEO site. Mortality data are age-standardized to the 1991 Canadian population.
Last updated July 2013