The City of Toronto has consistently been a leader in environmental policies and initiatives. In 2009, City Council approved the Toronto Green Standard, a two-tier set of environmental performance measures applied during the planning process to create more sustainable developments and help build a resilient city. Also, in 2009 Council adopted the City's Green Roof By-law, making Toronto the first City in North America to have a by-law to require and govern the construction of green roofs on new development. Other leading environmental initiatives include Bird Friendly Design Guidelines, Best Practices for Effective Lighting, the Biodiversity booklet series and Guidelines for Biodiverse Green Roofs.
City Council also adopted a strategy in 2008 for climate change adaptation as well as placed an increasing emphasis on the creation of a city that is resilient to the projected effects of climate change.