Reports & Data Centre

Economic Data Centre

Find information on the City and regional economies, including data on key indicators, such as employment characteristics, real estate activity, social, financial, and demographic characteristics.

Census/ National Household Survey (NHS) Data

2011 NHS and Census

Every five years, Statistics Canada collects detailed demographic data about Canadian residents.  In 2011 the long-form census was replaced with the voluntary National Household Survey (NHS).


Canadian census and NHS data are not corrected for undercoverage.  Although Statistics Canada makes a great effort to count every person, in each census a notable number of people are left out for a variety of reasons.  For example, people may be traveling, some dwellings are hard to find, and some people simply refuse to participate.Statistics Canada takes this into account and estimates an ‘undercoverage’ rate for each urban region (CMA), but not for municipalities.  The estimated net undercoverage rate for the Toronto CMA was 4.69% in 2011.

Place of Residence (POR) and Place of Work (POW)

Census/NHS data are collected where people live (ie by Place of Residence); however, census/NHS data are also coded to where the respondent works (ie Place of Work).  When analyzing Canada-wide data, the distinction is usually not very important and we can use the terms "jobs" and "employed residents" interchangeably.  For small areas and even for municipal and regional data the distinction is, however, very important.  In 2011, according to NHS data, 197,000 people commuted out of the city of Toronto (largely to 905 municipalities) each day to work, while 454,000 non-residents commuted into the city of Toronto each day.  

Census/NHS employment data by Place of Residence are divided into three groups.  In 2011, according to NHS, the City of Toronto had 1,269,155 employed residents.  Of those employed residents 1,034,130 work in a workplace, 87,795 work at home and another 140,480 have no usual place of work.  Only workers in the first two categories are coded to a place of work.    

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Census Tract Reference Maps

Click on the image for detailed Census Tract data.