Web exhibits

Caribbean Connection: One Man's Crusade

 

Portrait of Donald Moore
Donald Moore
Photographer: Andrew Stawicki/GetStock.com
1992
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 15, Item 1
Reproduced with permission of the Toronto Star

Donald Willard Moore (1891-1994), described by his friend and former Human Rights Commissioner Bromley Armstrong as "the leader, the gentle giant, the man with the iron fist in a velvet glove," was a community leader and civil rights activist who fought to change Canada's exclusionary immigration laws.

Donald Moore was born at Lodge Hill, St. Michael's Parish, Barbados on November 2, 1891. His parents were Charles Alexander Moore, a cabinetmaker and member of the Barbados Harbour Police Force, and Ruth Elizabeth Moore.

 

At the age of 21, Moore left his family behind and emigrated to the United States, but soon left New York City for Montreal. He found work with the Canadian Pacific Railway as a sleeping car porter and his job brought him to Toronto. Moore earned enough to enrol in The Dominion Business College at 357 College Street, where he completed the courses necessary to allow him to register in the dentistry program at Dalhousie University in Halifax in 1918. Dominion Business College, 357 College Street
Dominion Business College,
357 College Street
March 27, 1919
City of Toronto Archives
Series 372, Subseries 58, Item 785

A lengthy bout of tuberculosis brought an end to Moore's formal education and his hopes of becoming a dentist. In need of money, he took a job as a tailor, a trade he had learned in Barbados. In 1920, Moore began working at Occidental Cleaners and Dyers, located at 318 Spadina Avenue between St. Patrick Street (now Dundas Street West) and St. Andrew Street Eventually he was able to purchase the business.

Moore's store was a gathering place for the West Indian community. It was there that the Toronto branch of Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association was established, as well as the West Indian and Progressive Association and the West Indian Trading Association. Moore would continue to operate his business in various locations until his retirement in 1975

Spadina Avenue, north of St Patrick
The photo was taken a few years before Moore purchased Occidental Cleaners.His store was located just north of the six-storey Doherty Building.

Spadina Avenue north of St. Patrick Street, west side
ca. 1914
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 1244, Item 2478

 

Oakwood Avenue, between Jasmond Avenue and Rogers Road
View of Oakwood Avenue between Jesmond Avenue and Rogers Road. Moore relocated his business to this stretch of Oakwood in 1924 and remained at this location until 1934.

York Twp., Oakwood north from Rogers Road
October 2, 1924
City of Toronto Archives
Series 71, Item 3407

 

In 1951, Moore founded what came to be known as the Negro Citizenship Association, a social and humanitarian organization with the motto, "Dedicated to the promotion of a better Canadian citizen." The association sought to challenge the systematic denial of black West Indians seeking legal entry into Canada and to bring an end to the incarceration of individuals who were awaiting either deportation or decisions on deportation order appeals.

Negro Citizenship association reception, 1954
Moore is standing in the back row, third from the right.

Negro Citizenship Association reception tea
1954
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 15, Item 2

On Tuesday April 27, 1954 Moore led a delegation to Ottawa, which included 34 representatives from the Negro Citizenship Association, as well as unions, labour councils, and community organizations. They presented a brief to Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Walter E. Harris.

The brief drew public attention to Canada's discriminatory immigration laws, which denied equal immigration status to non-white British subjects, described the impact of those laws, and made specific recommendations for change.

Page from the Canadian Negro, April-May 1954
Moore [back row, left] with three other members of the Ottawa delegation

The Canada Negro, Vol. 2, No.3
April-May 1954
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 10, Item 1

 

Cover page of memorandum presented to the Prime Minister by the Negro Citizenship Association
Memorandum-Brief presented to the Prime Minister, Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Members of the Government of Canada by Negro Citizenship Association
Tuesday April 27, 1954
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 1, Item 1

 

The Immigration Act since 1923 seems to have been purposely written and revised to deny equal immigration status to those areas of the Commonwealth where coloured peoples constitute a large part of the population. This is done by creating a rigid definition of British Subject: 'British subjects by birth or by naturalization in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand or the Union of South Africa and citizens of Ireland.' This definition excludes from the category of 'British subject' those who are in all other senses British subjects, but who come from such areas as the British West Indies, Bermuda, British Guiana, Ceylon, India, Pakistan, Africa, etc...Our delegation claims this definition of British subject is discriminatory and dangerous.

Excerpt from the Negro Citizenship Association's brief to the Citizenship and Immigration Minister

The landmark brief and the subsequent relaxation of immigration laws opened the door for West Indian nurses and domestics to find employment in Canada. By 1955, Moore's work with the governments of Jamaica, Barbados, and Canada enabled domestics to gain permanent residency after one year of work.

Front page of Donald Moore's report welcoming immigrants from Barbados
Director's report on the occasion of welcoming to Canada the first contingent of 100 negro immigrant girls from Barbados and Jamaica
Negro Citizenship Association
November 3, 1955
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 2, Item 1

Donald Moore advising a new arrival to Canada
Moore counselling a new arrival
Undated
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 15, Item 3

 

Donavalon Centre, 20 Cecil Street
Donavalon Centre, 20 Cecil Street
Undated
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 3, Item 1

 

In 1956, Moore and two other members of the Negro Citizenship Association purchased a 12-room house on Cecil Street and converted it into a recreation centre for the West Indian community called Donavalon Centre.

In addition to serving as the home of the United Negro Improvement Association and the Toronto Negro Citizenship Association, the Donavalon Centre offered a range of activities and services, including dances, teas, Sunday programs, insurance for its members, and the publication of a quarterly newsletter.

In 2000, the City of Toronto Culture Division erected a plaque at 20 Cecil Street to commemorate Moore's significant contributions.

 

Group of ladies and Mayor Nathan Phillips at Donavalon Centre
A tea held at the Donavalon Centre in 1959, which was attended by Mayor Nathan Phillips, his wife Esther, and Controller Jean Newman. The event celebrated one year in Canada for a group of recent immigrants. Moore is standing in the back row, far left.

City of Toronto Archives
1959
Fonds 431, File 3, Item 2

Moore retired from business and public life in 1975. In his later years, Moore became an avid gardener. An award-winning member of the North York Horticultural Society, Moore cultivated a beautifully landscaped garden and lush greenhouse at his home on Drewry Avenue, a home he built himself not long after purchasing the undeveloped two-acre lot back in 1942.

 

Certificate presented to Donald Moore
North York Horticultural Society Horticultural Service Certificate to Donald Moore
November 26, 1984
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 14, Item 1

Donald Moore receiving the Order of Canada
Moore receiving the Order of Canada from Governor General Ray Hnatyshyn
City of Toronto Archives
Fonds 431, File 5, Item 1

Moore was the recipient of a number of awards for his significant contributions to the West Indian community and to Canadian society, including the City of Toronto Award of Merit (1982), the Ontario Bicentennial Medal (1984), the Harry Jerome Award of Merit (1984), the Barbados Service Medal (1986), the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship award (1987), the Order of Ontario (1988), and the Order of Canada (1990).

In August 1994, Donald Moore died in his sleep at the age of 102. He is buried at Sanctuary Park Cemetery in Etobicoke. He left behind Kay, his wife of almost 30 years, his son Desmond, and his stepchildren Karlene, Lawson, and Betty.


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