Trees and Ravines
Toronto, the largest city in Canada has an urban forest with an estimated 10.2 million trees covering approximately 18,000 hectares. Forty percent of this valuable resource is situated on public property, including an estimated 3.5 million trees within our parkland system and approximately 600,000 trees on our streets. Learn about Toronto's urban forest
Get outside, take pictures and share your memorable moments in Toronto's parks, urban forests, and recreation spaces for a chance to win great prizes! Participation is also a great way to explore and share what the city's green spaces, trees and recreation opportunities mean to you. The Parks, Forestry and Recreation photo contest runs from August 18 to September 30 and is presented by Nikon Canada.
Urban Forestry, Tree Protection and Plan Review (TPPR), has a new application form that can be used for both City and private trees. In addition, application fees to injure or destroy City and private trees have increased. The use of the new application form and new fees will be effective on Friday July 4th, 2014.
The Guildwood Village community has been severely impacted by Emerald Ash Borer. A public meeting was held on April 7, 2014 to discuss actions to-date and the process of developing the Guildwood Forest Management Plan.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) issued a Ministerial Order on December 3, 2013, which identified a new Asian Long-horned Beetle (ALHB) infestation and Regulated Area located in Mississauga and Toronto.
The December 2013 ice storm impacted trees across the city indiscriminate of age, species, size, condition or location. Recognizing the necessity to address hazardous situations promptly, Urban Forestry temporarily relaxed the process for dealing with hazardous trees on private property. This period has now ended.
For more general information, visit the Frequently Asked Questions page.
A major responsibility of Urban Forestry Services is the maintenance of City owned trees, particularly trees that grow on the City road allowance and in parks.
Private trees are an important part of the urban forest nurtured and are protected by Urban Forestry. Trees on private property can be protected and regulated under the provisions of municipal by-laws.
Urban Forestry Services plants trees on City-owned street allowances fronting residential properties for free. Periodically, Urban Forestry Services will canvass neighbourhoods for tree planting opportunities.
An arborist is a professional with knowledge of tree biology and physiology, and experience in arboriculture - the cultivation, management and study of individual trees. Learn when and how to hire one.
Trees need water to survive. Water is used by trees to carry nutrients obtained from the soil throughout the tree. During periods of hot, dry weather there is often less moisture available in the soil.
Why do tree leaves change colour in the fall? Leaves change colour due to biochemical processes within them that are triggered by diminishing amounts of daylight, longer nights, and weather factors. Your questions are answered at Trees FAQ.
Toronto has many natural areas including ravines and woodlands on both private and public land. Urban Forestry enforces protection by-laws and limits development proposals in and adjacent to ravine and natural feature areas.
The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is an invasive insect pest that attacks and kills all species of ash trees. In 2007, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency confirmed presence of EAB in Toronto. Urban Forestry implemented a management plan to mitigate the impact of this introduced pest on our urban forest.
European Gypsy Moth is a serious threat to Toronto's urban forest. At outbreak levels, this invasive insect can cause severe defoliation of trees. Parts of the City of Toronto experienced outbreaks in 2007, 2008, and 2013. An Integrated Pest Management control program was implemented in these years to prevent significant canopy loss in the affected areas.
The Asian Long-Horned Beetle (ALHB) which has devastated the tree canopies in parts of New York City and Chicago since the late 1990's was discovered September 2003 in parts of the City of Toronto and the City of Vaughan.
Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is caused by a fungus that attacks the water conducting vessels of the sapwood of elms. DED was introduced to Canada from Europe in 1944. The disease was first detected in Ontario in 1950. Since then it has spread over the entire range of native elms in North America. All American and European elm species are susceptible to DED.